Sleep apnea is a potentially life-threatening sleep disorder characterized by repeated pauses in breathing during sleep. The term sleep apnea is derived from the Greek etymology meaning “without breath”. Breathing pauses can last anywhere from several seconds to minutes, and happen as often as 30 times or more per hour. Ongoing disrupted breathing causes an imbalance between the carbon dioxide and oxygen levels in the bloodstream, as not enough carbon dioxide is exiting and not enough oxygen is entering the body.
Sensing this imbalance, the brain sends a message to the body, telling it to wake up to restart breathing the process. People with sleep apnea will partially awake as they struggle to breathe, and this is often accompanied by loud snoring or choking sensations. Because people with sleep apnea don’t always completely awake during the episodes, they are often unaware they have a sleeping disorder and it can remain undiagnosed.
Types of Sleep Apnea and Their Symptoms
There are two main types of this disorder; central sleep apnea which occurs when the brain fails to send important signals to the breathing muscles, and obstructive sleep apnea which occurs when air cannot flow through the nose or mouth even though the body is still trying to breathe. Obstructive sleep apnea is far more prevalent and easily treatable by the dentist.
Common signs of obstructive sleep apnea can include severe early morning headaches, sleepiness in the daytime, and insomnia. The main observation is that people have a loud snoring problem. What is the most important finding is that people with sleep apnea do not have a good night’s sleep and have what is know as excessive daytime sleepiness or EDS.
Reason For Treating Sleep Apnea
It is very important to seek medical attention if sleep apnea is suspected. A sufferer can completely stop numerous times per hour, and this can quickly turn into a deadly situation. Obstructive sleep apnea occurs when the soft tissue lying at the back of the patient’s throat collapses into the airway. The tongue then falls towards the back of the throat which tightens the blockage and prevents oxygen from entering the lungs.
The problem worsens when the chest region, diaphragm, and abdomen fight for air. The efforts they make to obtain vital oxygen only cause a further tightening of the blockage. The patient must arouse from deep sleep to tense the tongue and remove the soft tissue from the airway.
Because sleep apnea causes carbon dioxide levels to skyrocket in the blood and oxygen levels to decrease, the heart has to pump harder and faster to compensate for the lack of oxygen.
There are many medical conditions associated with sleep apnea and the American Heart Association has compared its risk to heart disease like that of smoking cigarettes.
Diagnosing Sleep Apnea
Usually a person has a sleep study either at home or at a sleep clinic. A diagnosis is made by the medical sleep specialist based on the respiratory disturbance index. On an average the RDI scale ranges from mild to severe.
Treating Sleep Apnea
The dentist can offer many different treatment options which depend largely on the exact diagnosis and the health of the patient. The dentist may advise the patient to halt some habits that aggravate sleep apnea such as smoking, alcohol consumption, and tranquilizer use.
Sleeping masks (CPAP machines) were traditionally used to keep the patient’s airways open while they slept, but nowadays there are some less intrusive options.
Dental appliances used to treat this disorder are called mandibular advancement devices or MAD. These devices gently ease the lower jaw forward are very effective in preventing the tongue from blocking the main air passage. They are gentle, easy to wear, and often help patients avoid unwanted surgeries.
A more permanent solution is to have oral surgery that sections the lower jaw and helps pull the bone holding the tongue forward slightly. This surgery has an impressive success rate and is simple for the dentist or oral surgeon to perform. The dentist needs to formally make a diagnosis of each individual case before recommending the best course of action.
See Dr. Smith for Sleep Apnea Solutions
Dr. Rick Smith is a credentialed member of the Academy of Dental Sleep Medicine and he works along with the medical community to provide convenient alternatives to CPAP machine. Medical Insurance companies recognize Dr. Smith as a specialist of oral medicine and accept medical insurance rather than dental insurance to cover the appliances used to treat breathing related sleep disorders. Many medical physicians and dentists also refer their patients to Dr. Smith.
Dr. Smith will start with a consultation to review your medical history and various sleep studies. Then he will explain what your diagnosis is and what it means to you and your particular sleep disorder. At this first appointment Dr. Smith will discuss which type of appliance will best suit your needs and give you a brochure.